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Environmental Geoheritage Landscapes

 Earthquake Relics

Modern Earthquake Relics

Surface Rupture Zone Caused by Ms8.1 Earthquake

On November 14, 2001, an 8.1 earthquake occurred in West Kunlun Mountain Pass caused by the left-lateral strike-slip fault of Mount Kunlun. The surface rupture zone was large, with a length of 450km and a width ranging from several meters to several hundred meters. It is currently known as one of the longest surface rupture zones formed by earthquakes inside the continental plate. Surface rupture zones, earthquake drumlin, and torsional branch ruptures vary in size.

The earthquake was the largest one in China in nearly 60 years, and is also one of the largest in the world since the 21st century. The East Mount Kunlun active fault zone has thus attracted attention from global geology circles.

Surface Rupture Zone Caused by Ms8.1 Earthquake

 

Ancient Earthquake Relics

Xidatan Ancient Earthquake Drumlin 

Earthquake drumlin is an uplifted strip that its length is much longer than its width due to local pressure and torsion on the residual layer where the surface is loosely deposited or weathered during the earthquake rupture. 

Xidatan Ancient Earthquake Drumlin is distributed along the main fault direction (295°) like a string of beads, and the long axis of the Earthquake drumlin tends to be in the north-south direction. The earthquake exploration team has excavated drumlin trial trench here and identified five surface rupturing earthquakes.

Xidatan Ancient Earthquake Drumlin

 

Ancient Earthquake Drumlin in Jingxian Valley

A series of beaded earthquake drumlins, with a long axis of about 290°, a length of 10 to 25m, a width of 6 to 12m, and a height of approx. 1.2 to 1.5m, were developed on the west side of Xidatan Valley and on the Grade II terraces on both sides over the northern mouth of Jingxian Valley. According to the OSL test, a strong earthquake occurred along the Xidatan fault at 6.1ka BP (6,100 years ago), due to which Earthquake Drumlin in Jingxian Valley was formed. 

Ancient Earthquake Drumlin in Jingxian Valley

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