中文
  7~12 c
Intangible Cultural Heritage

The geopark has a vast natural pasture and abundant aquatic plants. In the first year of Shenjue Period of Xuan Emperor in the Han Dynasty, "Chongguo led the troops to the place. People there have been slack on guard for a long time, and abandoned their equipment when seeing the army . . . Over ten thousand horses, cattle and sheep have been captured." This is the evidence of the developed livestock husbandry. The unique agricultural structure in geopark allows multiple nations such as Tibetan nationality, Hui nationality, Mongol nationality, Monguor and Salar nationality to live long and prosper here, which contributes to the cultural system in the geopark where many regious cultures coexist, various system cultures develop simultaneously, while with totally different national cultures and customs. Under the influence of many cultures, many intangible cultural heritages in the geopark are well preserved.

Mongolian Wedding in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture

The Mongol nationality in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in the geopark owns a unique historical background and living and production style. From 1509 to 1559, East Mongolia entered Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. From 1636 to 1645, West Mongolia entered Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Due to the war, tribal dispute and historical evolution, the East and West Mongolia were fused and the unique Mongolian life custom in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture generated. Therefore, migration histories, mountains and rivers, geographical names and figures are greatly described in the Mongolian wedding praise, congratulatory speech, ballad and other folk cultures in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, reserving the historical relics for several hundred years.

The Mongolian wedding in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is conducted in the following order: matchmaker, betrothal, wedding escorting, wedding party, etc. The wedding escorting means that the male sends the sheep and other gifts to the bride's home several days before the wedding ceremony, known as the Songzuosa, Deji etiquette. Then the rite of moving the stockade of Mongolian yurt and the wedding ceremony are conducted. Meanwhile, the bride's parents and relatives send the dowry to the bride groom’s house. In the wedding feast, the following rites shall be conducted successively: departure rite of bride, rest rite in the bride company way, wedding ceremony, worshipping Budda in the new house, fire sacrifice ceremony, the feast of the whole sheep, horse banquet, unveiling ceremony, taboo cancellation, etc. 

Only marriage with no blood relation (five generations for male and female) is allowed in the Mongol nationality in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, which greatly promotes the purity of human blood and the maintenance and improvement of quality. It contributes to passing down the historical culture and folk art, plays an important role in imparting good moral, greatly contributes to researching the tradition, culture, customs and development of the Mongol nationality, and owns certain academic value and practical value for the research on anthropology, ethnology and folk literature. In 2006, the Mongolian wedding in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is rated as Qinghai Provincial intangible cultural heritage. 

Mongolian Wedding in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture   

 

Mongolian Haircutting in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture

Mongol nationality in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is the major component of the Mongolian Nationality and the Shuote tribe, and is one of four tribes in the West Mongolia like the Shuote tribe. Since it has lived alone for a long time, its custom fashion is unique. Before the children in Mongol nationality in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture turn three years old, their lanugo hairs shall not be cut off, dyed or washed. The haircutting auspicious day shall be calculated at first for the haircutting rite. In the ceremony, the help hand for haircutting shall conduct the first cutting, followed by the family haircutting and the customer haircutting. The customers attending the haircutting ceremony shall give gift to the children. The first gift is a Hada, symbolizing good luck and happiness. The second one is young female livestock, symbolizing fortune. It is the first property of children, and grows up with children. The eulogy of haircutting rite is the educational proverbs for children in their whole life.

The haircutting rite of Mongol nationality in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture embodies the values, national belief and the advocated, based on the first life rites of Mongol nationality in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Therefore, it serves as national customs and historical data, with academic research, practical and artistic value. The haircutting rite of Mongol nationality in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture plays an important role in passing down the song and eulogy, for which the relevant rites are kept. The profound haircutting eulogy of Mongol nationality in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture reflects the production experience and life custom of laboring people, as well as the elder's care and dependence on the younger generation, and contains significance in education, philosophy, thought, etc. It thus becomes the first lesson for the children with hair cut. In 2006, the Mongolian haircutting rite in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is rated as Qinghai Provincial intangible cultural heritage. 

Mongolian Haircutting in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture

 

Folk Sacrificial Fire of Mongol Nationality in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture

The sacrificial fire ceremony is one of the traditional, namely the sacrifice to the god of fire and the kitchen god. There are the individual sacrificial fire, collective sacrificial fire, regular sacrificial fire and irregular sacrificial fire. The Mongol nationality in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai, conducts the sacrificial fire in the first day of the first lunar month in general. The collective sacrificial fire is held at festivals and grand activities in general.

As for periodic fire worship, on the 23rd day of the twelfth lunar month which is the date when the god of fire-Miren Zhamuleha was born according to the legend, "fire worship" ceremony is held by the Mongolian Nationality worshiping fire with words for home fete. There are scriptures which are profound or common as well as beautiful verse. Sheep sternal spatula, milk food, wine and other offerings will be used for worshiping the god of fire. In general, sternal spatula, mutton fat, rock candy, cheese, cypress leaf, hada, etc. are twined for 9 cycles with white wool line to be cooked thoroughly.

At the time of lighting the lamp at night, rose willow root and cedar pieceg are put into the chamber of a kitchen range with dry cow dung enclosing the chamber of a kitchen range which is fired. At the time of "fire worship", the host picks up cooked sheep sternal spatula with both hands and put it into the fire for enjoying "luck in having food" on account of "fire worship". All family members pray to the god of fire before the fire.

The Mongol nationality in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai inherits and carries forward national traditions of fire worship and calls the youngest son as the person for holding fire plate, meaning carrying on the family lineage. In 2011, the Mongolian folk sacrificial fire in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is rated as the Qinghai Provincial intangible cultural heritage.

Folk Sacrificial Fire of Mongol Nationality in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture

  

Manufacturing Skills for Mongolian Costumes in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Mongolian embroidery)  

The Mongol nationality in the park lives in a multi-ethnic settlement. Because of influences from geographical conditions, weather conditions and cultural factor, unique national costume culture is formed with distinctive ethnic style and regional characteristics and has extremely high artistic value. The Mongol nationality mainly takes costume, cotton, fur, chemical fiber and other daily necessities as objects for embroidery. In terms of costumes, braided tube, belt, footgear, collarband, head band and bib are involved. In terms of articles of daily use, pillow top, small-bowled long-stemmed (tobacco) pipe, tailor's cushion, pouch and sheath are involved. Most of embroidery products above are used as gift and token to relatives, friends and lovers. In 2011, Wu Ying Mu-Ge Qi became the representative inheritor among the second provincial intangible cultural heritage projects in Qinghai with manufacturing skill for Mongolian costume in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Mongolian embroidery).

Mongolia embroidery

 

Mongolian Woodcarving in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture

Woodcarving is one of superb Mongolian handicrafts and once greatly impressed audiences from all around the country at Shanghai World Expo. Guolemude Town with woodcarving and embroidery well developed in the park has successfully become the home of national woodcarving and embroidery after declaration.

Woodcarving art has a long history among Mongolians. Mongolian woodcarving in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture involves figures, such as human portrait regarding Genghis Khan, Kublai with historical influence and influence of daily life, animals, such as cow, sheep, horse, camel, dog, cat and other common animals in the grassland as well as articles of daily use and producer goods, such as Mongolian yurt, wood bowl, wine glass, snuff bottle, and tools with national features, such as Darrow card and Mongolian chess.

Mongolian artists in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture express their daily life with woodcarving. They who live in the prairie lack professional carving tool, so Mongolian knife becomes a main carving tool for herdsmen.

Mongolian woodcarving in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture mainly resorts to local wild rose willow, Nitraria tangutorum Bobr and other common plants as materials. Woodcarving is rustic, natural and realistic.

Mongolian woodcarving in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture

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